Table 1

Descriptions and examples of behavioral categories

Behavioral categoryDescriptionExample
Self-directed
  Mark-directed or sham-directedSpecific orienting or repetitive behaviors while positioned that, when the dolphin is marked, expose the marked body part to the reflective surface or, when the dolphin is sham-marked, expose the sham-marked part of the body to the reflective surfaceRepetitive upward neck stretches when the dolphin is marked ventrally, e.g., under the chin, or sustained left-side orientation when the dolphin is marked behind the left pectoral fin
  ExploratorySpecific orienting or repetitive behaviors while positioned that occur when the dolphin is either unmarked or marked but do not expose the marked body part to the mirrorRepetitive vertical head movements when the dolphin is marked in the horizontal plane, e.g., behind the right pectoral fin, or sustained right-side orientation when the dolphin is marked on the ventral surface, e.g., near genitals
Non-directedDoes not occur while positioned at a particular locationSwimming, surfacing
AmbiguousPositioned behavior at a reflective surface that does not indicate a specific orientation or exposure of one particular part of the body to the mirrorHead-on position without other specific body movements
SocialBehaviors typically observed when subject, or other dolphins in general, confront another unfamiliar dolphinThreats, such as squawks or jaw claps, or invitations to interact, such as underwater tail slaps