Table 1

Land-use zones and policies in the study‚ÄČarea

CountryZonePolicyTenure
KenyaMMNRWildlife tourism and conservation; excludes local land useCounty Council Trust
Inner GRs (Siana, Koiyaki, Ol Choro Oirua, etc.)Multiple land uses: herding, farming, wildlife tourismPrivate plots, some areas are communal property (in trust)
Outer GRs (Lemek, Nkorinkori etc)Multiple land uses: mechanized commercial farming, smallholder farming, herding, some wildlife tourismPrivately owned
TanzaniaSNPWildlife tourism and conservation; excludes local land useState controlled
NCAWildlife tourism and conservation; local land use restricted to herding and small-scale farmingState controlled
LGCAHerding, small-scale farming, wildlife tourism, hunting leases, mechanized commercial farmingState; registered villages hold title to their land; state allows some private land purchases
Maswa Game ReserveWildlife tourism, hunting leasesState controlled
Ikorongo Game ReserveWildlife tourism, hunting leasesState controlled
Grumeti Game ReserveWildlife tourism, hunting leasesState controlled