Table 1

Fos protein expression induced by exposure to a cocaine-predictive stimulus vs. self-administration of cocaine

Brain RegionsCue exposure: immediate test Cue exposure: 4-month delay Self-administration
SS+S+ plus SCH39166SS+S+ plus SCH39166SalineCocaine (acute)Cocaine (chronic)
Medial prefrontal
 cortex*72.7  ± 22.3156.2  ± 24.287.0  ± 13.6§90.6  ± 8.0155.6  ± 15.9103.7  ± 12.4§69.5  ± 23.1178.3  ± 24.0131.8  ± 22.9
Frontal cortex15.7  ± 4.49.7  ± 3.514.7  ± 2.521.6  ± 6.330.8  ± 11.213.5  ± 2.444.8  ± 25.8121.7  ± 34.072.2  ± 24.6
Parietal cortex56.1  ± 25.719.0  ± 5.513.7  ± 4.535.1  ± 13.058.6  ± 9.226.5  ± 11.042.6  ± 18.269.7  ± 14.277.0  ± 18.2
Agranular cortex53.2  ± 21.923.7  ± 2.314.0  ± 3.345.0  ± 13.761.8  ± 17.849.5  ± 12.135.0  ± 11.390.7  ± 8.2122.4  ± 36.0
Claustrum65.7  ± 28.199.5  ± 24.662.2  ± 12.051.8  ± 12.478.8  ± 19.452.0  ± 14.2150.0  ± 59.3160.7  ± 7.3185.6  ± 31.4
Accumbens shell16.0  ± 5.112.5  ± 4.915.6  ± 4.86.6  ± 2.68.0  ± 2.14.1  ± 1.012.0  ± 4.334.3  ± 5.1‡‡11.8  ± 1.3
Accumbens core8.5  ± 3.77.2  ± 1.812.2  ± 4.36.1  ± 3.27.6  ± 1.94.7  ± 1.96.7  ± 2.318.7  ± 3.615.1  ± 1.4
Striatum (dorsolateral)4.5  ± 2.22.5  ± 0.84.0  ± 1.61.7  ± 0.51.2  ± 0.51.1  ± 0.32.9  ± 1.458.7  ± 21.5‡‡40.2  ± 1.1‡‡
Striatum (dorsomedial)4.2  ± 1.91.9  ± 1.02.0  ± 0.92.1  ± 0.73.2  ± 2.40.6  ± 0.12.3  ± 0.843.7  ± 18.6‡‡15.4  ± 3.3
Amygdala (basolateral)3.3  ± 1.09.4  ± 1.63.7  ± 1.8§2.3  ± 0.711.4  ± 1.2††3.9  ± 1.2§§3.4  ± 1.66.6  ± 01.45.4  ± 0.9
Amygdala (central)4.2  ± 1.22.4  ± 0.75.0  ± 1.71.0  ± 0.11.6  ± 0.21.4  ± 0.53.7  ± 2.717.5  ± 2.2‡‡5.8  ± 1.0
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus31.2  ± 15.831.0  ± 12.140.7  ± 10.716.3  ± 6.820.9  ± 10.116.5  ± 6.510.0  ± 6.187.7  ± 23.1‡‡6.8  ± 1.3
Central thalamic nucleus15.7  ± 13.19.7  ± 3.215.6  ± 4.46.5  ± 2.75.9  ± 2.14.7  ± 2.93.6  ± 1.772.3  ± 10.5‡‡6.4  ± 1.2
Ventromedial hypothalamus16.1  ± 8.220.5  ± 9.514.5  ± 4.94.6  ± 0.39.6  ± 2.913.5  ± 4.53.0  ± 1.419.7  ± 5.8‡‡6.5  ± 1.3
  • Shading indicates brain regions showing increased Fos expression after exposure to the cocaine S+

  • * Prelimbic cortex (Cg3) and cingulate cortex (Cg1). 

  • Newman–Keuls post hoc tests after ANOVA:  

  • , P < 0.05;  

  • ‡‡ , P < 0.01 (different from saline).  

  • , P < 0.05;  

  • †† , P < 0.01 (different from S).  

  • § , P < 0.05;  

  • §§ , P < 0.01 (different from S+).