Table 1

Comparison of the performance of various actuation strategies

Actuator materialMaximum strain, %Maximum pressure, MPaEfficiency, %
Human skeletal muscle>40*0.35*>35
Conducting polymers: (2)
 Drawn polyacetylene0.45450
 Undrawn polythiophene1.137
Field-actuated acrylic elastomer (6)215*2.490
Electromagnetic (voice coil)500.190
Ceramic piezoelectric (16)0.2*11090
Carbon nanotubes (3)0.9*0.75*
Ionic polymer metal composite (17)>10*10–30*
H2–O2EPT136,000*20070*
  • Information was taken from ref. 18 unless otherwise indicated. 

  • * Experimentally measured values.