Table 1

Subject groups of drug, alcohol, nicotine users, and depressive symptoms

GroupQuestionnaire statement or questionAnswer
Street drug user1.  Have you used street drugs?Yes
Problem drug/alcohol user*2.  I am having serious problems with drug or alcohol use.Yes
Street drug user and problem drug/alcohol user3.  Yes answer on questions 1 and 2.Yes, Yes
Control I4.  No on questions 1 and 2.No, No
Alcohol user, no drug use5.  When I drink it is usually 3 or more drinks/day; No on questions 1 and 2.Yes No, No
Nicotine user, no drug use6.  How many cigarettes do you now smoke per day?20 or more
    How many years have you smoked?5 yrs or more
    No on questions 1 and 2.No, No
Depressive symptoms, only7.  I often (a) feel like crying; (b) feel hopeless or down in the dumps; (c) have problems with depression.Yes
    No on questions 1 and 2.
Suicidal ideation, only8.  I often feel suicidal.Yes
    And No on questions 1 and 2.
Control II9.  No on questions 1, 2, 7, and 8.
  • The statements or questions represent the exact wording in the questionnaire completed by all patients in the groups shown. When more than one question is listed, an affirmative answer to any one question was regarded as positive in that category. 

  • * Drug/Alcohol problem users included together because there was no separate questionnaire category for each; alcohol users with no drug use were analyzed separately.