Table 1

Types and relative frequencies of hind-limb deformities from field experiments conducted with wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

Ectrodactyly (missing digit)2.32.312.80025
Polydactyly (extra digit)5.500000
Apody (missing foot)12.49.30000
Polypody (extra foot)0000025
Ectromely (missing limb)24.628.337.80500
Polymely (extra limb)
Micromely (short limb)07.70000
  • The value shown for each type of abnormality is the percentage of the total number of abnormalities observed for all animals that survived to metamorphosis. Number in parentheses indicates the number of animals exhibiting limb deformities/the total number of animals reaching metamorphosis. The total number of abnormalities may not equal the number of abnormal animals, as several animals exhibited more than one type of abnormality. Measurements are reported only from animals developing in enclosures that exposed them to trematode infection, because these are the only animals that exhibited deformities. Sites 1–3 are agricultural runoff sites, sites 4–6 are sites with no detectable contaminants.