Table 1

Stomatal characteristics of fossil Carboniferous (C) and Permian (P) lycopsid microphyll leaves and leaf bases

Fossil specimenPeriodStageAge, Myr agoOrganSI*, %Atmospheric CO2 concentration (ppm) ± 95% cls
Lepidodendron rhodianum CNamurian331–318Leaf scars4.9385  ± Embedded Image
L. veltheimii CNamurian331–318Leaf cushions4.0392  ± Embedded Image
Lepidophloios grangeri CNamurian331–318Leaf cushions8.1359  ± Embedded Image
Bothrodendron minutifolium CWestphalian318–303Leaves9.4348  ± Embedded Image
Lepidodendron aculeatum CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions9.0351  ± Embedded Image
L. arberi CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions10.9336  ± Embedded Image
L. dichotomum CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions14.4308  ± Embedded Image
L. feistmantelii CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions9.2350  ± Embedded Image
L. mannabachense CWestphalian318–303Leaf scars7.3366  ± Embedded Image
L. peachii CWestphalian318–303Leaf scars6.9368  ± Embedded Image
L. subdichotomum CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions8.2358  ± Embedded Image
Lepidophloios acadianus CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions15.0303  ± Embedded Image
L. acerosus CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions7.1367  ± Embedded Image
L. laricinus CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions9.2350  ± Embedded Image
L. macrolepidotus CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions2.9401  ± Embedded Image
Ulodendron landsbergii CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions17.0287  ± Embedded Image
U. landsbergii CWestphalian318–303Leaves14.0311  ± Embedded Image
U. majus CWestphalian318–303Leaf cushions17.3284  ± Embedded Image
U. majus CWestphalian318–303Leaves12.3325  ± Embedded Image
Synchysidendron sp.PKazanian268Leaf cushions10.1342  ± Embedded Image
Paralycopodites sp.PKazanian266Leaf cushions12.1326  ± Embedded Image
Dispersed cuticlesPKazanian263Leaf cushions (?)16.6290  ± Embedded Image
Synchysidendron baodeense PKazanian260Leaf cushions10.1343  ± Embedded Image
Dispersed cuticlesPKazanian260Leaf cushions (?)19.6266  ± Embedded Image
  • * Calculated as (SD/(SD + ED) × 100), where SD is stomatal density (mm−2), measured directly on fossil cuticles, and ED is epidermal cell density, calculated from cell dimensions for the Carboniferous plant cuticles.