Table 1.

Inventory of putative GHs identified in the giant panda gut microbiome

CAZy familyPfam HMM namePfam accessionKnown activitiesGiant panda gut community
GH1Glyco_hydro_1PF00232β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase, β-mannosidase, others101
GH2Glyco_hydro_2_CPF00703β-Galactosidase, β-mannosidase, others1
GH3Glyco_hydro_3PF00933β-1,4-Glucosidase, β-1,4-xylosidase, β-1,3-glucosidase, α-larabinofuranosidase, others18
GH4Glyco_hydro_4PF02056α-Glucosidase, a-galactosidase, α-glucuronidase, others6
GH5CellulasePF00150Cellulase, β-1,4-endoglucanase, β-1,3-glucosidase, β-1,4-endoxylanase, β-1,4-endomannanase, others3
GH8Glyco_hydro_8PF01270Cellulase, β-1,3-glucosidase, β-1,4-endoxylanase, β-1,4-endomannanase, others2
GH10Glyco_hydro_10PF00331Xylanase, β-1,3-endoxylanase2
GH13Alpha-amylasePF00128α-Amylase, catalytic domain, and related enzymes35
GH16Glyco_hydro_16PF00722β-1,3(4)-Endoglucanase, others9
GH18Glyco_hydro_18PF00704Chitinase, endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, noncatalytic proteins1
GH20Glyco_hydro_20PF00728β-Hexosaminidase, lacto-N-biosidase7
GH23SLTPF01464G-type lysozyme, peptidoglycan lytic transglycosylase20
GH24Phage_lysozymePF00959Lysozyme1
GH25Glyco_hydro_25PF01183Lysozyme9
GH27MelibiasePF02065α-Galactosidase, α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, isomalto-dextranase36
GH28Glyco_hydro_28PF00295Polygalacturonase, rhamnogalacturonase, others1
GH29Alpha_L_fucosPF01120α-l-fucosidase1
GH31Glyco_hydro_31PF01055α-Glucosidase, α-xylosidase, others9
GH32Glyco_hydro_32NPF00251Levanase, invertase, others13
GH35Glyco_hydro_35PF01301β-Galactosidase4
GH36No PfamNo Pfamα-Galactosidase, α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase33
GH37TrehaalsePF01204α,α-trehalase2
GH38Glyco_hydro_38PF01074α-Mannosidase10
GH39Glyco_hydro_39PF01229β-Xylosidase, α-l-iduronidase9
GH42Glyco_hydro_42PF02449β-Galactosidase18
GH51No PfamNo PfamEndoglucanase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase5
GH55No PfamNo PfamExo-1,3-glucanase, endo-1,3-glucanase1
GH58No PfamNo PfamEndo-N-acetylneuraminidase or endo-sialidase1
GH65Glyco_hydro_65mPF03632Trehalase, maltose phosphorylase, trehalose phosphorylase1
GH67Glyco_hydro_67MPF03648α-Glucuronidase, others2
GH70Glyco_hydro_70PF02324Dextransucrase, alternansucrase9
GH72Glyco_hydro_72PF03198β-1,3-glucanosyltransglycosylase3
GH73GlucosaminidasePF01832Peptidoglycan hydrolase with endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase specificity28
GH77Glyco_hydro_77PF024464-α-Glucanotransferase, amylomaltase12
GH78Bac_rhamnosidPF05592α-l-Rhamnosidase2
GH85Glyco_hydro_85PF03644Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase4
GH88Glyco_hydro_88PF07470d-4,5 Unsaturated β-glucuronyl hydrolase1
GH89NAGLUPF05089Alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase2
GH90No PfamNo PfamEndorhamnosidase1
GH94No PfamNo PfamCellobiose phosphorylase, chitobiose phosphorylase, cellodextrin phosphorylase7
GH95No PfamNo Pfamα-l-Fucosidase4
GH101No PfamNo PfamEndo-α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase6
GH104Phage_lysozymePF00959Peptidoglycan lytic transglycosylase1
GH109No PfamNo Pfamα-N-acetylgalactosaminidase7
  • CAZy family and known activities are from the Carbohydrate Active Enzymes database (http://www.cazy.org/) (32). Pfam HMM-based sequences name and Pfam accession are from the Pfam database (http://pfam.sanger.ac.uk/) (33), a large collection of protein families, each represented by multiple sequence alignments and hidden Markov models. Giant panda gut community: Number of predicted genes match the Pfam domains or “non-Pfam” representative sequences.