Table 2.

Quantitative data on subsistence economy collated for each population

PopulationPredominant subsistence economyGatheringHuntingFishingAnimal husbandryAgricultureMilking
IboExtensive agriculture0–5%0–5%0–5%6–15%86–100%1
ItaliansIntensive agriculture0–5%0–5%16–25%16–25%56–65%2
JapaneseIntensive agriculture0–5%0–5%6–15%6–15%76–85%1
ChineseIntensive agriculture0–5%0–5%6–15%6–15%76–85%1
MongolianMostly pastoralism0–5%6–15%0–5%76–85%6–15%2
HawikuhIntensive agriculture26–35%6–15%6–15%0–5%46–55%1
Biaka/MbutiMostly hunting26–35%66–75%0–5%0–5%0–5%1
SanMostly gathering76–85%16–25%0–5%0–5%0–5%1
AlaskanMostly hunting6–15%66–75%16–25%0–5%0–5%1
GreenlandMostly fishing6–15%16–25%66–75%0–5%0–5%1
AustralianMostly gathering56–65%36–45%0–5%0–5%0–5%1
  • For each category of subsistence dependence, the following ordinal scale was used: 0 = 0–5%, 1 = 6–15%, 2 = 16–25%, 3 = 26–35%, 4 = 36–45%, 5 = 46–55%, 6 = 56–65%, 7 = 66–75%, 8 = 76–85%, 9 = 86–100%. The predominant subsistence economy assigned in the Ethnographic Atlas database was used to assign populations into two groups: agriculturalist/pastoralist and hunter/gatherer/fishers. For the milking variable, 0 = missing, 1 = little/none, 2 = more often than sporadically.