Table 3.

Results of Mantel and partial Mantel tests performed

NonmasticatoryMasticatory
Cranium*ChondroVaultMandiblePalatomaxZygotempTemplines
Mantel tests
 Genetics0.61 (0.002)0.54 (0.001)0.62 (0.001)0.23 (0.149)0.18 (0.179)0.50 (0.004)0.38 (0.010)
 Geography0.72 (0.001)0.79 (0.001)0.63 (0.001)0.44 (0.010)0.19 (0.188)0.70 (0.001)0.52 (0.002)
 Climate0.49 (0.002)0.26 (0.007)0.38 (0.016)0.38 (0.009)0.32 (0.021)0.38 (0.015)0.20 (0.166)
 Subsistence 10.15 (0.166)0.23 (0.075)0.19 (0.091)0.31 (0.032)0.32 (0.024)0.22 (0.097)0.09 (0.453)
 Subsistence 20.13 (0.340)0.12 (0.388)0.20 (0.122)0.25 (0.041)0.28 (0.036)0.11 (0.395)0.02 (0.893)
 Subsistence 30.26 (0.052)0.25 (0.080)0.30 (0.022)0.37 (0.008)0.31 (0.031)0.27 (0.058)0.12 (0.375)
 Subsistence 40.19 (0.100)0.22 (0.079)0.23 (0.057)0.32 (0.012)0.30 (0.037)0.22 (0.093)0.07 (0.565)
Partial Mantel tests (genetics controlled for)
 Climate0.39 (0.018)0.10 (0.486)0.24 (0.071)0.33 (0.033)0.28 (0.051)0.26 (0.061)
 Subsistence 10.31 (0.017)0.32 (0.034)
 Subsistence 20.26 (0.045)0.28 (0.040)
 Subsistence 30.31 (0.021)0.36 (0.014)0.30 (0.029)
 Subsistence 40.31 (0.017)0.30 (0.040)
Partial Mantel test (genetics, climate, and geography controlled for)
 Subsistence 30.31 (0.045)0.34 (0.032)0.34 (0.028)0.38 (0.009)0.28 (0.036)0.31 (0.032)0.09 (0.477)
  • Correlation coefficients (P values in parentheses) for Mantel and partial Mantel test comparisons of morphological distance matrices and genetic, geographical, climatic, and subsistence distance matrices. Nonsignificant results (P > 0.05 for full, P > 0.017 for 3-way partial, and P > 0.010 for 5-way partial Mantel tests) are shown in bold. Chondro, chondrocranium (basicranium); Palatomax, palate and maxilla region; Templines, insertions of the temporalis muscles; Zygotemp, zygomatic and temporal region (Fig. 2 and Table S2).

  • *Cranium refers to the full cranial configuration, including the vault, face, and base.

  • Subsistence 1, binary matrix; Subsistence 2, quantitative data (Table 2); Subsistence 3, hunting and fishing treated as single variable; Subsistence 4, horticulture and animal husbandry treated as single variable.