Table 1.

Summary of simulations and power output in year 5

SimulationModel horizontal resolution (degrees)Turbine spacing At (m2)Total number of 5-MW turbines (millions)Number of turbines over ocean (millions)Total installed power (TW)Percent of world for spacingTurbine installed power density (W/m2)Annual total power output year 5 (TW)
   A) World (control)4 × 528D21,1468215,73010011.31,750
   B) World 4 × 528D21,1468215,73010011.3224
   C) World4 × 556D25734112,8641005.62228
   D) World4 × 584D23822741,9091003.75219
   E) World4 × 5112D22862051,4321002.81206
   F) World4 × 5224D21431037161001.41160
   G) World2 × 2.556D25744102,8701005.65251*
   H) World1.5 × 1.556D25754102,8721005.65253*
   I) Land 4 × 528D229901,49526.011.371.2
   J) Land 4 × 556D21490747.626.05.6266.7
   K) Land4 × 5112D274.80373.826.02.8156.4
   L) Land4 × 5224D237.40186.926.01.4139.7
   M) Land1.5 × 1.528D230201,51026.311.372.0*
   N) Land 4 × 51,470D2402018.30.217.50
   O) Land+coast 8 sites§4 × 556D240.00420.1950.6965.623.93
   P) Land 3 sites4 × 528D24020.1050.34811.31.63
Jet stream-SWPP
   Q)Jet stream4 × 528D29316684,65381.011.3375
   R) Jet stream1.5 × 1.528D29416734,70781.911.3378*

Earth’s surface area is 510.6 million km2. Hub heights were 100 m above ground level except in the jet stream cases (10 km). D = 126 m is turbine rotor diameter.

  • *The 1.5° × 1.5° simulations were run for only six months and the 2° × 2.5° simulations, for one year, due to their enormous computing requirements. The ratio of the power generation averaged over the months or year to that from the same time for the corresponding 4° × 5° resolution simulation was multiplied by the last-year annual-average result from the 4° × 5° simulation to estimate the 1.5° × 1.5° and 2° × 2.5° power generation averaged over the last year for conditions from that simulation.

  • Land in these cases included all land north of 60S (outside of Antarctica) but did not include coastal ocean.

  • Land in this case included all land 15S–60S and 15N–66.56083N (Arctic Circle), and below 3 km altitude but did not include coastal ocean.

  • §All turbines in this case were distributed among 19 windy cells in 8 locations: the Great Plains (4 cells), offshore East Coast (3), the North Sea (2), the Sahara Desert (3), the Gobi Desert (2), the Yellow Sea (1), Australia (2), and Patagonia (2).

  • All turbines in this case were distributed among nine windy cells in three locations: the Great Plains (4 cells), the Sahara Desert (3), and the Gobi Desert (2).

  • The jet stream winds considered were 10S–70S and 10N–70N, and at 10 km altitude. Top and bottom turbine heights were 10.063 km and 9.937 km, respectively.