Table 3.

Effect of the presence of observers on the correlation between turnout and results of elections

Vote share as a number of registered voters
SampleUnited Russia and Just RussiaUnited Russia and LDPRUnited Russia and CommunistsUnited Russia and Yabloko
Observers present × Turnout × United Russia dummy−0.349** (0.157)−0.276* (0.141)−0.350** (0.161)−0.347** (0.133)
Turnout × United Russia dummy1.040*** (0.036)1.048*** (0.033)1.015*** (0.039)1.062*** (0.038)
Observers present × Turnout0.081** (0.041)0.010 (0.029)0.081* (0.046)0.078*** (0.030)
Turnout−0.024 (0.014)−0.029** (0.013)−0.001 (0.016)−0.050*** (0.015)
Observers present × United Russia dummy0.160* (0.083)0.122 (0.075)0.160* (0.085)0.151** (0.070)
Observers present−0.040* (0.022)−0.003 (0.016)−0.040 (0.024)−0.032* (0.016)
United Russia dummy−0.426*** (0.023)−0.414*** (0.021)−0.454*** (0.024)−0.417*** (0.024)
Constant0.089*** (0.010)0.076*** (0.009)0.119*** (0.010)0.083*** (0.010)
Electoral districts fixed effectsYesYesYesYes
Observations6,3286,3286,3286,328
r20.850.870.800.85
  • The unit of observation is party-precinct. Each regression includes observations for United Russian and a party indicated in the table. SEs clustered by electoral district are in parentheses. *P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01.