Table 2.

Effect of the presence of observers on results of elections

Vote share of
SampleUnited RussiaJust RussiaLDPRCommunistsYablokoTurnout
Observers present, no serious violations−0.159*** (0.013)0.037*** (0.004)0.026*** (0.004)0.044*** (0.005)0.046*** (0.006)−0.090*** (0.011)
Observers present serious violations reported−0.073*** (0.016)0.015*** (0.005)0.015*** (0.005)0.016* (0.009)0.024*** (0.005)−0.062*** (0.015)
Observers present, no protocol received−0.044* (0.023)0.001 (0.007)0.009 (0.006)0.012 (0.010)0.020** (0.008)−0.022 (0.015)
Constant0.449*** (0.000)0.126*** (0.000)0.098*** (0.000)0.199*** (0.000)0.089*** (0.000)0.614*** (0.000)
Electoral districts fixed effectsYesYesYesYesYesYes
Observations3,1643,1643,1643,1643,1643,164
r20.420.340.370.310.470.34
  • SEs clustered by electoral district are in parentheses. *P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01.