Table 1.

Spillovers

Vote share of
SampleUnited RussiaJust RussiaLDPRCommunistsYablokoTurnout
Observers present−0.130*** (0.013)0.029*** (0.004)0.027*** (0.003)0.035*** (0.005)0.034*** (0.004)−0.086*** (0.009)
Observers present in a neighboring polling station−0.052*** (0.014)0.014*** (0.004)0.022*** (0.004)0.015*** (0.005)−0.002 (0.005)−0.047*** (0.009)
Constant0.452*** (0.010)0.125*** (0.003)0.097*** (0.002)0.198*** (0.003)0.089*** (0.004)0.616*** (0.006)
Observations3,1643,1643,1643,1643,1643,164
r20.030.020.030.020.020.03
  • SEs clustered by electoral district are in parentheses. *P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01.