Table 1.

Controlled Fab-arm exchange at different scales

VolumeBench scaleLarge scale
0.1–0.2 mL1–3 mL3 mL25 L25 L
IgG1-2F8-F405L0.1–0.5 g/L0.5 g/L10 g/L0.5 g/L10 g/L
IgG1-7D8-K409R0.1–0.5 g/L0.5 g/L10 g/L0.5 g/L10 g/L
2-MEA (mM)0–5025505050
Reduction time0–240 min90 min5 h5 h5 h
Temperature (°C)15, 25, 3737AmbientAmbientAmbient
2-MEA removalDesalting*Desalting**Desalting***DiafiltrationDiafiltration
Exchange efficiencyNA94–98%94.60%93.00%94.70%
Bispecific producedNANA57.0 mg23.25 g473.50 g
  • Desalting was done by means of *spin-plate, **PD-10, or ***MicroSpin G-25 columns. NA, not assessed.