Table 1.

Parallels between evolution-like processes between and within organisms

InterorganismIntraorganism
1. Reproduction and development1. Duplication of structure and/or function
2. Divergence via mutation, recombination, and/or drift2. Degeneracy and/or dedifferentiation
3. Environment-correlated preservation via superior fittedness3. Function-correlated preservation via complementation or synergy