Table 1.

Self-deception proves costly: Experiment 3

 Control Answers Test 1 score 4.58 7.61*** Test 2 prediction 4.98 7.24*** Test 2 score 4.45 4.47 Earnings $17.75$14.47***
• Participants given the answer key for the first test performed better on that test than those in the control condition, and erroneously predicted higher scores on the second test, resulting in lower earnings due to their similar performance. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.