Table 1.

Traits likely to be affected by unnatural selection in harvested populations

TraitSelective actionResponse(s)Remedy
Age and size at sexual maturationIncreased mortalitySexual maturation at earlier age and size, reduced fertilityReduce harvest mortality or modify selectivity of harvest
Body size or morphology, sexual dimorphismSelective harvest of larger or more distinctive individualsReduced growth rate, attenuated phenotypesReduce selective harvest of large or distinctive individuals
Sexually selected weapons (horns, tusks, antlers, etc.)Trophy huntingReduced weapon size or body sizeImplement hunting regulations that restrict harvest based on size or morphology of weapons under sexual selection
Timing of reproductionSelective harvest of seasonally early or late reproducersAltered distribution of reproduction (truncated or altered seasonality)Harvest throughout reproductive season
BehaviorHarvest of more active, aggressive or bolder (more vulnerable to predation) individualsReduced boldness in foraging or courtship behavior, potentially reduced productivityImplement harvest methods less likely to impose selection on activity or aggressive behavior
Dispersal/migrationHarvest of individuals with more predictable migration patternsAltered migration routesInterrupt harvest with key time and area closures tied to primary migration routes