Table 1.

Comparisons of oxygen transport traits for Tibetan and Andean high-altitude natives living at comparable altitudes between 3,500 and 4,500 m (expressed as effect size d and as heritability h2)

TraitdPercent nonoverlap of observationsh2Refs.
Resting ventilation, liters/minMale, 1.0Female, 1.1≈55% (n = 320 Tibetan, 542 Andean)Tibetan, 0.32 Andean, not significant20
Tidal volume, mlMale, 1.1Female, 0.8≈55% (n = 320 Tibetan, 542 Andean)No data20
Respiration rate, breaths per minuteMale, −0.2 Female, −0.2≈15% (n = 320 Tibetan, 542 Andean)No data20
HVR, Δliters/min per saturation, %Male, 0.8Female, 0.8≈47% (n = 320 Tibetan, 542 Andean)Tibetan, 0.35 Andean, 0.2220
Oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, %Male, −0.9 Female, −0.5≈47%, ≈33% (n = 354 Tibetan, 381 Andean)Tibetan, 0.35 Andean, NS26, 27
Hemoglobin concentration, g/dlMale, −2.2 and −0.7 Female, −2.4>82%; ≈43% (n = 136 Tibetan, 174 Andean)Tibetan, 0.64 Andean, 0.8925, 28
2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate mutase concentrationMale, −0.7≈43% (n = 30 Tibetan, 30 Andean)No data25, 41
Erythropoietin concentration, milliunits/mlMale, −0.2≈15% (n = 30 Tibetan, 29 Andean)No data25
Exhaled NO, nmHgMale, 1.2Female, 1.1≈55% (n = 105 Tibetan, 144 Andean)No data34
Partial pressure of O2 in arterial blood, mmHgMale, −0.8≈47% (n = 10 Tibetan, 20 Andean)No data24, 25
Mean pulmonary artery pressure, mmHgMale, −1.3≈65% (n = 5 Tibetan, 11 Andean)No data29
Pulmonary artery systolic pressure, mmHgMale and female, −1.3≈65% (n = 57 Tibetan, 14 Andean)No data30, 31
Calf muscle capillary density, no/mm2Male, 1.3≈65% (n = 5 Tibetan, 10 Andean)No data6466
Mitochondrial volume density, %Male, −0.3≈21% (n = 5 Tibetan, 10 Andean)No data6466
  • Negative effect sizes reflect lower Tibetan mean values.