Table 1.

Nonlinear/complexity mechanisms and phenomena in physiology: partial list of possible contenders

Abrupt changes
 Bifurcations
 Intermittency/bursting
 Bistability/multistability
 Phase transitions
Hysteresis
Nonlinear oscillations
 Limit cycles
 Phase-resetting
 Entrainment
 Pacemaker annihilation
Scale-invariance
 Fractal and multifractal scaling
 Long-range correlations
 Self-organized criticality
 Diffusion limited aggregation
Alternans phenomena
Nonlinear waves: spirals; scrolls; solitons
Complex periodic cycles and quasiperiodicities
Stochastic resonance and related noise-modulated mechanisms
Time irreversibility
Complex networks
Deterministic chaos
Emergent properties
  • Modified from ref. 13.