Table 1.

The impact of Rs on daily mean air temperature (Ta) during three periods, 1900–2010, 1985–2010, and 1940–1984 (in °C per 100 y)

Time periodsGlobal landNorth AmericaSouth AmericaEuropeAfricaAsiaAustralia
Yearly
 1900–2010a−0.11*−0.11*−0.68*0.01−0.04−0.50*−0.084
 1985–2010b0.07−0.21−0.230.46*0.34−0.57*0.80
 1940–1984−0.36*-0.46*−1.04*−0.24*−0.29*−0.53*−0.08
Warm seasons
 1900–2010a−0.11*−0.15*−0.47−0.010.03−0.43*−0.06
 1985–2010b0.19−0.31−0.030.75*1.10*−0.221.96*
 1940–1984-0.45*−0.62*−0.82−0.29*−0.43*−0.54*−0.08
Cold seasons
 1900–2010a−0.12*−0.07−0.82*0.03−0.14−0.52*−0.09
 1985–2010b−0.09−0.02−0.280.270.49−0.50−0.41
 1940–1984−0.29*−0.22−1.58*−0.20*−0.28−0.55*0.03
  • Negative values indicate that Rs reduced the rate of warming caused by the elevated GHG, and positive values mean that Rs amplified the warming rate by GHG. We also divide the data into boreal warm seasons (May to October) and cold seasons (November to April). The asterisk represents impact of Rs is statistically significant (i.e., pass the Student’s t confidence test at α = 0.05).

  • a Time periods for different regions are different and may cover only a fraction of 1900–2010 (Fig. 5).

  • b Time periods for different regions are different and may cover only a fraction of 1985–2010 (Fig. 5).