Table 1.

Experiment results

QuestionAll respondentsWaits on platformAll respondents
QuestionATE (P)*CATE (P)T1 levels (SD)
Number of immigrants be increased?0.09 (0.008)0.083 (0.012)0.489 (0.272)
Undocumented immigrants allowed to stay?0.073 (0.016)0.098 (0.016)0.441 (0.362)
English as official language?0.03 (0.27)0.043 (0.152)0.619 (0.364)
  • In the first “All respondents” column, ATE represents responses in T2-T1 for the treatment group compared with the control group for the entire experimental sample. Positive values mean a more politically conservative response. In the “Waits on platform” column, CATEs are the Conditional Average Treatment Effects for persons who said they stand on the platform, rather than wait in their cars. In the second “All respondents” column, T1 levels and SDs for each variable for all respondents. All variables scaled 0–1.

  • * P values from a one-tailed test against the Null Hypothesis of no effect are in parentheses.

  • Each of the questions allowed responses on a five-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree (exact answers were changed to be appropriate to the actual question).