Table 1.

Glycoside accumulation in various plant species when exposed to green leaf volatiles

(Z)-3-Hexenyl glucoside(Z)-3-Hexenyl vicianoside(Z)-3-Hexenyl primeveroside
SpeciesControlExposedControlExposedControlExposed
Oryza sativa0.001 ± 0.0000.313 ± 0.071*0.001 ± 0.0010.011 ± 0.003*0.000 ± 0.0000.055 ± 0.019*
Sorghum sp.0.002 ± 0.0010.096 ± 0.011*0.004 ± 0.0010.020 ± 0.002*
Triticum aestivum0.003 ± 0.0010.034 ± 0.011*
Citrulus lanatu0.001 ± 0.0010.559 ± 0.087*0.007 ± 0.0010.310 ± 0.064*
Cucumis melo0.003 ± 0.0010.049 ± 0.007*0.004 ± 0.0030.038 ± 0.009*
Cucumis sativus0.004 ± 0.0030.251 ± 0.048*0.001 ± 0.0000.264 ± 0.038*0.003 ± 0.0010.029 ± 0.002*
Monordica charantia0.002 ± 0.0010.157 ± 0.061*0.087 ± 0.0370.484 ± 0.247*0.015 ± 0.0070.080 ± 0.044*
Lotus japonicas0.002 ± 0.0010.680 ± 0.22*
Phaseolus lunatus0.004 ± 0.0030.662 ± 0.111*0.004 ± 0.0020.376 ± 0.011*
Phaseolus vrugaris0.002 ± 0.0010.358 ± 0.051*0.002 ± 0.0010.060 ± 0.006*0.001 ± 0.0010.058 ± 0.017*
Trifolium repens0.002 ± 0.0010.056 ± 0.012*0.003 ± 0.0020.016 ± 0.003*
Abelmoschus esculentus0.003 ± 0.0010.374 ± 0.100*0.005 ± 0.0010.089 ± 0.009*
Arabidopsis thaliana0.002 ± 0.0000.132 ± 0.035*
Brassica rapa0.000 ± 0.0000.028 ± 0.011*
Eruca vesicaria0.001 ± 0.0000.010 ± 0.004*
Raphanus sativus0.001 ± 0.0000.013 ± 0.001*
Antirrhium majus0.005 ± 0.0020.366 ± 0.014*
Plantago asiatica0.011 ± 0.0050.127 ± 0.036*
Melissa officinalis0.000 ± 0.0000.013 ± 0.001*
Solanum lycopersicum0.001 ± 0.0000.096 ± 0.007*0.002 ± 0.0010.251 ± 0.026*0.007 ± 0.0030.066 ± 0.017*
Solanum melongena0.004 ± 0.0020.024 ± 0.006*0.073 ± 0.0180.359 ± 0.031*
Nicotiana tabacum0.002 ± 0.0010.236 ± 0.025*0.005 ± 0.0010.029 ± 0.001*
Arctium lappa0.002 ± 0.0010.075 ± 0.016*0.008 ± 0.0010.167 ± 0.023*
Petroselium crispum0.000 ± 0.0000.016 ± 0.004*0.007 ± 0.0010.102 ± 0.016*
  • Accumulated glycosides in control and green leaf volatile-exposed plants were extracted and analyzed by UFLC-Q/MS. Quantities are presented as relative peak areas normalized by formononetin on the basis of gram of fresh weight (g−1 FW) of the plant tissues. Mean values (± SE) from three to four experiments are shown. *P < 0.05 (Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon U test).