Table 1.

Staining patterns in relation to diagnosis

DiagnosisnABCA + B + C
Narcolepsy896 (6.7%)15 (16.9%)3 (3.4%)24/89 (27.0%)
OSRD523* (5.8%)7 (13.5%)2 (3.8%)12/52 (22.5%)
HCs772 (2.6%)4 (5.2%)2 (2.6%)8/77 (10.4%)
MCs602 (3.3%)3 (5%)1 (1.7%)6/60 (10.0%)
  • Four different groups were studied: narcolepsy (NCL) patients, patients with OSRD, HCs (Helsinki Sleep Clinic), and MCs (military). There was a significant increase of staining patterns A, B, and C in the narcolepsy group vs. the OSRD group combined with the two controls groups (NCL vs. OSRD + HC + MC; P = 0.015, Fisher test) and either group alone (NCL vs. OSRD vs. HC + MC; P = 0.0034, χ2 test). Likewise, staining patterns A and B were significantly more common in the narcolepsy group vs. the OSRD and control groups (NCL vs. OSRD vs. HC + MC; P = 0.0040, χ2 test). For each individual pattern, there was a significant increase for pattern B only (NCL vs. OSRD vs. HC + MC; P = 0.0136, χ2 test).

  • * Group A: depressive disorder (n = 2) and hypersomnia (n = 1).

  • Group B: postviral fatigue, depression, parasomnia, hypersomnia, mild mental retardation, and two cases with unknown diagnosis (n = 7).

  • Group C: delayed sleep-phase disorder and parasomnia/depression (n = 2).