Table 2.

Mean and SD for each extant and fossil taxon and the number of SDs each fossil sample deviates from the recent human and chimpanzee means, which were treated as reference samples

Element and taxonMean trabecular fractionSDMean SDs from recent Homo sapiensMean SDs from Pan troglodytesRange
Proximal humerus
 Recent Homo sapiens0.200.020.16–0.26
Pan troglodytes0.300.030.25–0.37
Australopithecus africanus0.469.444.79
Homo neanderthalensis0.272.48−0.950.24–0.29
 Early Homo sapiens0.262.10−1.26
Proximal ulna
 Recent Homo sapiens0.250.050.16–0.39
Pan troglodytes0.330.050.16–0.29
Australopithecus africanus0.474.042.910.40–0.57
Homo neanderthalensis0.484.092.97
 Early Homo sapiens0.331.37−0.11
Distal radius
 Recent Homo sapiens0.210.030.16–0.27
Pan troglodytes0.310.030.23–0.39
 Swarkrans0.302.55−0.42
Homo neanderthalensis0.385.301.78
Proximal metacarpal
 Recent Homo sapiens0.230.030.16–0.33
Pan troglodytes0.320.030.25–0.38
Australopithecus africanus0.311.81−0.510.28–0.33
Paranthropus robustus/early Homo0.291.47−0.91
Homo neanderthalensis0.250.29−2.27
 Early Homo sapiens0.311.92−0.38
Proximal femur
 Recent Homo sapiens0.230.020.19–0.29
Pan troglodytes0.410.020.35–0.46
Australopithecus sp.0.447.380.79
Australopithecus africanus0.468.111.480.36–0.52
Homo neanderthalensis0.405.88−0.59
 Early Homo sapiens0.375.10−1.31
Distal tibia
 Recent Homo sapiens0.230.040.16–0.32
Pan troglodytes0.310.010.28–0.35
Australopithecus africanus0.445.036.330.37–0.52
 Early Homo sapiens0.291.51−1.10
Distal metatarsal
 Recent Homo sapiens0.210.030.16–0.30
Pan troglodytes0.340.040.26–0.37
Paranthropus robustus/early Homo0.363.850.48
 Early Homo sapiens0.466.683.76
  • Positive and negative values refer to the number of SDs above and below the reference sample means, respectively. Ranges are provided only for those samples with n > 3.