Table 2.

Major threat factors considered responsible for the extinction or decline of Australian mammal species

Threat factorConservation status
Extinct (30 spp.)Critically Endangered (10 spp.)Endangered (10 spp.)Vulnerable (36 spp.)Near Threatened (52 spp.)All Extinct, threatened, and Near Threatened (138 spp.)
Predation by feral cats5.4 (22)4.6 (8)2.9 (9)2.9 (29)1.9 (29)3.2 (97)
Predation by red fox3.0 (13)2.4 (4)1.5 (5)1.9 (19)1.1 (17)1.9 (58)
Inappropriate fire regimes0.6 (6)4.4 (7)2.1 (6)2.3 (22)1.4 (22)1.7 (63)
Habitat loss and fragmentation1.8 (11)1.0 (2)1.3 (4)0.9 (13)0.8 (15)1.2 (45)
Livestock and feral herbivores2.1 (14)0 (0)0.2 (1)0.5 (7)0.5 (8)0.8 (30)
Disease1.4 (7)1.2 (2)1.0 (2)0.4 (7)0.2 (4)0.7 (22)
Climate change; severe weather0.2 (1)0.8 (1)0.5 (1)0.9 (9)0.8 (14)0.6 (26)
Predation by dingoes and dogs0.1 (2)0 (0)0.2 (1)0.8 (9)0.1 (2)0.3 (15)
Hunting0.6 (3)0 (0)0 (0)0.1 (1)0.1 (2)0.2 (6)
Predation by black rats0.4 (2)0.4 (1)0 (0)0.1 (2)0.0 (1)0.2 (6)
Poisoning by cane toads0 (0)0 (0)0.6 (1)0.3 (3)0.0 (1)0.1 (5)
Timber harvesting0 (0)0.3 (2)0.2 (1)0.1 (1)0.1 (3)0.1 (8)
Other0.5 (2)1.4 (4)2.0 (5)1.2 (12)0.3 (6)0.8 (29)
  • Values in body of table are mean threat impact score across species (where 8 indicates that the threat poses an extreme extinction risk; 6, a very high risk; 4, a high risk; and 2, a moderate risk; Methods). The bracketed number indicates the number of species for which the threat factor was considered a risk. The category “other” includes a wide range of factors including disturbance at roost sites, pollution, habitat degradation due to weeds, and hybridization.