Table 1.

Summary of molecular effects of adding solvents to intact SC, including molecular dynamics of the solvent molecules inside SC and changes in molecular mobility of SC lipid and protein components induced by solvent

  • Here, the solvent was added at varying concentrations to dry SC with no additional water. The solvent concentration was varied to identify a concentration regime where an obstructed/fast anisotropic fraction of solvent coexists with an isotropic fraction of solvent. The logarithm of octanol/water partition coefficient (log P) and the molecular weight (Mw, g/mol) of the solvents are also listed. log P is used as a facile reference value for the hydrophobicity of the solvents. It does not account for differences in solubility due to variations in the fluid and solid structures. The colors indicate the types of solvents: polar solvents (blue), apolar solvents (yellow), and the solvent with log P ∼ 0 (green). In the case of water, the molecular dynamics of the solvent is not studied, because water does not contain any carbons. The effects of the solvents on SC lipid chain mobility are compared with the effects of water at the same concentration. The symbols should be read as weaker (<), stronger (>), and much stronger (>>) fluidizing effect compared with water. Abbreviations: fast ani, fast anisotropic; iso, isotropic; N.A., not applicable; N.D., not detected; and obs, obstructed. All experiments were performed at 32 °C.