Table S1.

LR values from the phylogenetic comparative analysis of the pairwise relationships among the 32 features

Feature12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
1) Isochronous beat
2) Metrical hierarchyna
3) Two- or three-beat subdivisionsnana
4) Two-beat subdivisionsnanana
5) Motivic patterns39812
6) Few durational values (<5)2873224
7) Discrete pitches1021312
8) ≤7 scale degrees480234na
9) Pentatonic (five-note) scale7814118na5
10) Small intervals (<750 cents)5803132533
11) Descending/arched contour2702111146
12) Syllabic singing1777315211181079
13) Vocable (nonlexical syllable) use1721232272115
14) Word use3913748233516na
15) Dissonant homophony26125121512663
16) Phrase repetition7115734165358119524
17) Short phrases (<9 s)619038372431623211
18) Group performance24162643411262397433
19) Vocal embellishment153351112431054na36511510
20) Loud volume35224347253561248485
21) High register4615238544110875643410
22) Modal register (chest voice)671223841213111532295313
23) Idiophone use41451073211261312971551520355
24) Membranophone use920421054485014362158241881053
25) Aerophone use69384844913312493421311255142
26) Voice use94224362738nanana2237na2110na468
27) (Nonvocal) instrument use16251225436241237144124547nananana
28) Percussion use111031847461151412531143413644nana78na
29) Dance accompaniment20925111411263311121417153121022215162174
30) Male performers36313144217212121133231844113253
31) Sex segregation38348710378216542153na16736145456315na
32) Nonequidistant scale241213na151142323146120441226624
  • Relationships implied by definition are indicated as “na.” Regular text indicates positive relationships, and italics indicate negative relationships. Significant relationships (LR > 9.49) are highlighted in bold. Relationships whose direction was consistent across all nine regions are underlined. LR values are rounded to the nearest whole number.