Table S3.

Interrater reliability for the 32 features

Feature% agreementKappa
Aerophone use96.70.905
Instrument use96.70.870
Voice use93.30.850
Discrete pitches93.30.714
Word use93.30.441
Chest voice93.3NA
Metrical hierarchy90.00.603
Dissonant homophony90.00.571
Pentatonic scale90.00.500
≤7 scale degrees90.0−0.043
Nonequidistant scale90.0NA
Sex segregation86.70.767
Group performance86.70.426
Isochronous beat86.70.259
Syllabic singing83.30.578
Two- or three-beat subdivisions83.3NA
Loud volume80.00.585
Percussion use80.00.532
Vocal embellishment80.00.508
Short phrases80.00.260
Two-beat subdivisions76.70.452
Membranophone use76.70.386
Motivic patterns73.30.172
Idiophone use70.00.363
High register66.70.282
Small intervals66.70.189
Descending/arched contour66.7NA
Phrase repetition63.30.127
Vocable use63.30.086
Few durational values60.0−0.017
Male performers56.70.649
Dance accompanimentNANA
  • The data are based on codings of 30 randomly-selected recordings by P.E.S. and E.S. (SI Materials).