Table S2.

Voting preferences by group for study 1

ExperimentVoting preferencesMean (SE)Kruskal–Wallis (χ2)Mann–Whitney u
Group 1 (Gillard bias)Group 2 (Abbott bias)Group 3 (control)
1PreImpressionAbbott8.09 (0.34)7.74 (0.40)7.41 (0.26)3.979525.0
PreImpressionGillard7.06 (0.42)7.47 (0.35)6.88 (0.32)1.395529.5
PreTrustAbbott7.82 (0.31)7.85 (0.39)7.35 (0.28)3.275538.5
PreTrustGillard6.38 (0.40)7.56 (0.30)6.88 (0.32)5.213407.0
PreLikeAbbott6.06 (0.52)5.68 (0.47)5.79 (0.38)0.296538.5
PreLikeGillard5.29 (0.48)5.76 (0.41)5.29 (0.37)1.335500.0
PostImpressionAbbott4.24 (0.49)7.29 (0.51)5.85 (0.38)19.029***252.0***
PostImpressionGillard7.26 (0.45)4.71 (0.47)5.65 (0.46)14.667**286.0**
PostTrustAbbott4.59 (0.43)7.32 (0.51)6.15 (0.38)18.385***260.5***
PostTrustGillard6.91 (0.42)4.97 (0.43)6.15 (0.40)10.809**326.5**
PostLikeAbbott3.88 (0.43)6.24 (0.58)5.18 (0.42)11.026**341.5**
PostLikeGillard5.68 (0.49)4.15 (0.45)5.41 (0.42)5.836403.0*
2PreImpressionAbbott6.76 (0.43)7.50 (0.34)6.76 (0.44)1.761477.0
PreImpressionGillard6.50 (0.36)7.29 (0.43)6.12 (0.45)4.369449.5
PreTrustAbbott6.41 (0.44)7.12 (0.30)7.32 (0.44)2.700499.0
PreTrustGillard6.56 (0.41)7.32 (0.36)6.35 (0.43)3.094465.0
PreLikeAbbott5.56 (0.46)5.65 (0.43)5.76 (0.49)0.170575.0
PreLikeGillard5.79 (0.44)5.79 (0.48)5.47 (0.45)0.306568.0
PostImpressionAbbott3.79 (0.41)7.15 (0.49)5.24 (0.48)20.878***226.5***
PostImpressionGillard7.35 (0.39)4.79 (0.47)6.00 (0.38)15.270***279.5***
PostTrustAbbott3.82 (0.40)7.18 (0.47)5.53 (0.51)21.917***207.5***
PostTrustGillard7.32 (0.41)4.97 (0.46)6.18 (0.36)13.410**302.0**
PostLikeAbbott3.91 (0.42)6.09 (0.53)5.56 (0.48)9.822**353.0**
PostLikeGillard6.68 (0.45)4.29 (0.48)5.79 (0.40)12.905**311.5**
3PreImpressionAbbott7.24 (0.39)7.18 (0.39)7.88 (0.27)1.346568.5
PreImpressionGillard6.12 (0.43)7.09 (0.39)7.26 (0.34)4.134452.0
PreTrustAbbott7.18 (0.35)6.41 (0.41)7.53 (0.32)3.837478.0
PreTrustGillard6.65 (0.38)6.68 (0.40)6.97 (0.33)0.259568.5
PreLikeAbbott6.59 (0.42)5.94 (0.39)6.59 (0.43)2.301491.0
PreLikeGillard5.85 (0.46)5.85 (0.43)6.26 (0.41)1.065576.5
PostImpressionAbbott5.29 (0.48)6.82 (0.41)6.26 (0.48)5.512384.0*
PostImpressionGillard6.50 (0.45)5.47 (0.43)6.21 (0.48)3.027445.5
PostTrustAbbott5.38 (0.49)6.85 (0.45)6.47 (0.47)5.091399.0*
PostTrustGillard6.44 (0.45)5.76 (0.47)6.29 (0.44)1.365493.0
PostLikeAbbott5.29 (0.48)6.03 (0.48)5.79 (0.53)1.129487.0
PostLikeGillard6.12 (0.47)5.26 (0.54)6.09 (0.51)1.475491.5
  • * P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; and ***P < 0.001: Kruskal–Wallis tests were conducted between all three groups, and Mann–Whitney u tests were conducted between groups 1 and 2. Preferences were measured for each candidate separately on 10-point Likert scales.