Table S6.

Voting Preferences by Group for Study 3

Voting preferencesMean (SE)Kruskal–Wallis (χ2)
Group 1 (Gandhi bias)Group 2 (Kejriwal bias)Group 3 (Modi bias)
PreImpressionGandhi5.94 (0.10)5.73 (0.10)5.65 (0.10)4.782
PreImpressionKejriwal6.80 (0.09)7.07 (0.09)7.09 (0.08)6.230*
PreImpressionModi7.49 (0.10)7.46 (0.10)7.48 (0.09)0.188
PreLikableGandhi5.71 (0.10)5.64 (0.10)5.61 (0.10)0.722
PreLikableKejriwal6.68 (0.09)6.78 (0.09)6.87 (0.09)2.030
PreLikableModi7.40 (0.10)7.29 (0.10)7.29 (0.10)1.483
PreTrustGandhi5.57 (0.11)5.52 (0.11)5.42 (0.10)0.955
PreTrustKejriwal6.54 (0.10)6.74 (0.10)6.85 (0.09)4.546
PreTrustModi7.22 (0.11)7.31 (0.11)7.27 (0.10)0.159
PreLikelyToVoteGandhi0.10 (0.12)0.08 (0.12)0.08 (0.12)1.587
PreLikelyToVoteKejriwal1.19 (0.11)1.38 (0.11)1.55 (0.10)5.178
PreLikelyToVoteModi2.15 (0.12)2.12 (0.12)2.06 (0.12)0.202
PostImpressionGandhi5.78 (0.10)5.52 (0.10)5.35 (0.10)9.552**
PostImpressionKejriwal6.50 (0.09)6.96 (0.09)6.70 (0.08)14.288**
PostImpressionModi7.27 (0.10)7.26 (0.10)7.60 (0.09)7.860*
PostLikableGandhi5.62 (0.10)5.46 (0.10)5.26 (0.10)6.322*
PostLikableKejriwal6.37 (0.09)6.84 (0.09)6.64 (0.08)13.456**
PostLikableModi7.24 (0.11)7.20 (0.11)7.47 (0.10)3.874
PostTrustGandhi5.71 (0.11)5.48 (0.10)5.22 (0.10)11.386*
PostTrustKejriwal6.38 (0.10)6.89 (0.10)6.68 (0.08)15.840***
PostTrustModi7.18 (0.11)7.20 (0.11)7.49 (0.10)4.758
  • * P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; and ***P < 0.001: Kruskal–Wallis tests were conducted between all three groups. Preferences were measured for each candidate separately on 10-point Likert scales.