Table S1.

Characteristics of corneal nanostructures of representatives of different insect families studied in our work are provided, along with a few selected citations of previous studies when they describe nanopatterns different from those typically found in the respective families by us

Insect taxonomySize of nanostructuresNanostructural pattern
OrderFamilyBroadness, nmHeight, nm
Lepidoptera
Nymphalidae (Clossiana Sp.)20040–100highly ordered nipples
Nymphalidae (Argynnis sp.)20040–60highly ordered nipples
Pterophoridae180150highly ordered nipples
Papilionidae (Papilio machaon)2508–20moderately ordered nipples
Papilionidae (Protographium asius)21020maze
Satyridae (Lasiommata sp.)21030highly ordered nipples (38)
Pieridae (Gonepteryx rhamni)21045Highly ordered nipples
Arctiidae (Arctia sp.)220100highly ordered nipples
Lyonetiidae (Leucoptera coffeella)strands (26)
Trichoptera
Limnephilidae (Limnephilus subnitidus)20040maze
Phryganeidae50+200–35040–50irregular nipples
Diptera
Culicidae (Culex sp.)17065moderately ordered nipples
Tipulidae23040nipples → strands
Tabanidae (Haematopota sp.)20020strands → maze
Oestridae300–40025–35nipples → maze (38)
Drosophilidae (Drosophila melanogaster)25030irregular nipples (6)
Muscidae (Musca domestica)10045nipples → strains
Syrphidae (Sphaerophoria scripta)20015nipples → strands
Mecoptera
Panorpidae200–30030–40merging nipples
Siphonaptera
Pulicidae (Xenopsylla cheopis)200–25010–20dimples
Megaloptera
Sialidae100–30015–40merging nipples
Raphidioptera
Raphidiidae150–30015–30merging nipples
Neuroptera
Chrysopidae (Chrysoperla carnea)100–25020merging nipples
Coleoptera
Gyrinidae (Gyrinus sp.)300–35025–30maze (overwater)/smooth (underwater) (13)
Coccinellidae (Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata)50–25020maze
Staphylinidae (Nudobius sp.)400–50030maze
Carabidae50–10025dimples
Scarabaeidaesmooth
Hymenoptera
Crabronidae (Cerceris rybyensis)25040maze → dimples
Apidae (Bombus serrisquama; Apis meliphera)200–3006–20maze → dimples/smooth
Ichneumonidae (Phygadeuon sp.)500–100030dimples
Psocoptera
Psocidae (Metylophorus nebulosus)30025–40irregular nipples (38)
HemipteraScutelleridae100–2008–15maze → dimples
Pyrrhocoridae (Pyrrhocoris apterus)100–20040maze → dimples
Aphrophoridae250–30030dimples + maze
Miridae (Leptopterna dolabrata; Stenodema viris)100–22010–30nipples → maze; maze
Aphidoideasmooth
Nepidae (Nepa sp.)smooth
Gerridaesmooth
Odonata
Platycnemididae1005–15irregular nipples
Plecoptera
Perlidae150–30030–50nipples → maze
Blattodea
Blattidae200–30025dimples
Thysanura
Lepismatidae80–25010nipples
Phthiraptera
Pediculidaesmooth
Mantodea
Mantidae (Mantis sp.)smooth
Isoptera
Termitidaesmooth
Dermaptera
Forficulidae (Forficula auricularia)150–30020dimples
Forficulidae (Forficula sp.)nipples (32)
Orthoptera
Gryllidae (Gryllus bimaculatus)200–25015maze → dimples
Acrididae (Epacromia dorsalis)nipples (33)
Tettigoniidae (Tettigonia viridissima; Decticus verrucivorus)100–20045merging nipples/smooth
Phasmatodea
Phasmatidae (Neohirasea maerens)smooth
Heteropterygidae (Orestes mouhotii)smooth
Ephemeroptera
Ephemeridaesmooth