Table 1.

Two-way PERMANOVA test of the effects of climate manipulation treatments and time (year of experiment) on biocrust community structure (2005–2014)

Source*dfSSPseudo-FP
Treatment364,91211.50.001
Block47,82018.00.001
Time1843,09713.60.001
Treatment × block1222,60917.40.001
Treatment × time5420,3963.50.001
Block × time7212,6931.60.001
Residual21623,407
  • * First biocrust surveys were completed in Autumn 2005, and treatments were initiated in December 2005 and included controls (no climate manipulations), warming, watering (frequent, small-volume water additions), and warming + watering. SS, sums of squares from PERMANOVA.