Table 1.

Ecosystem services quantified from 1971 to 2006 across the Montérégie in Quebec, Canada, and covariables used to explain the spatial variability in the distribution of ES

Ecosystem servicesIndicators/units
Provisioning
 PoultryPoultry*/km2
 CattleCattle/km2
 PorkPigs/km2
 Crops%
Regulating
 Flood controlδ(max − mean)/5 y
 Carbon sequestrationkg C/km2
Cultural
 HuntingAnimals hunted/km2
 CampsitesCampsites/km2
 Outdoor activitiesOutdoor recreation centers/km2
Covariables
 Population densityInhabitants/km2
 Soil capability for agricultureClasses (0-7)
 Distance from Montrealkm
  • All ES quantified rely on local ecosystems for their supply, including farm animals that are mostly fed with locally produced feed and outdoor recreation centers that involve outdoor activities in natural environments. Indicators were chosen based on the availability of primary data that was measured consistently through time and space. More detailed descriptions of the ES and historical data sources are provided in the SI Appendix.

  • * Includes chickens, ducks, turkeys, and other poultry.

  • Flood control was quantified using the difference (i.e., δ) between the maximum and the mean number of flooding events over 5 y.

  • Outdoor recreation centers are starting points for snowshoeing and skiing in winter or hiking trails in summer.