Table 1.

Number of electrons, equilibrium potential, thermoneutral potential, and lower heating value of various fuels at standard conditions

Fuel-forming reactionsNumber of electronsEquilibrium potential, VThermoneutral potential, VLower heating value, kJ mol−1
H2OH2+12O221.2291.481241.81
CO2CO+12O221.3291.466282.98
CO2+H2OHCOOH+12O221.2491.315209.82
CO2+2H2OCH3OH+32O261.1991.255638.73
CO2+2H2OCH4+2O281.0591.153802.23
2CO2+3H2OC2H5OH+3O2121.1441.1811,235.45
2CO2+2H2OC2H4+3O2121.1491.2191,322.94