Table 1.

Data analyzed

DatasetsIQAchievement testsGradesPersonality measuresAdult outcomes
Stella Maris (Dutch high school students)✓(Big Five; grit)NA
BCS (children born in one week in 1970 followed until 38 y old)*
NLSY79 (prospective survey of youth 14–21 y old in 1979; currently followed)✓(Self-esteem; locus of control)
MIDUS (survey in adult life; baseline 24–34 y old in 1995; follow-up 2004–2006)NANA✓(Big Five)
  • Details on each dataset and their measures are provided in SI Appendix, Appendices S2–S5. NA, not available.

  • * Self-esteem, locus of control, disorderly activity, antisocial behavior, introversion, and neuroticism.