Table 1.

Comparison of wind power limits based on climatology (rows a–l) and GCMs (rows m–z)

Approach for estimation of wind power limitGlobal coverage, %Installed capacity, MWi km−2Wind speedElectricity generation
Control, m s−1Max. gen., m s−1Reduced by, %kWh m−2 y−1∑ TWeWe m−2
  a) VKE (this study)100n/a7.04.0422.71580.31
   mVKE (this study)100n/a7.04.0425.23020.59
  b) Gustavson (1979) (18)1006.02.21300.25
  c) Jacobson and Delucchi (2011) (5)1007.029.21,7003.33
  d) Jacobson and Archer (2012) (8)10011.38.130.01,7503.43
  e) VKE (this study)26n/a4.62.7422.8430.32
   mVKE (this study)26n/a4.62.7423.9570.44
  f) Archer and Jacobson (2005) (3)
  g) Lu et al. (2009) (4)268.98.31260.95
  h) IPCC (2012) (9), Rogner et al.  (2000) (10)6n/a54.71906.24
  i) VKE (this study)71n/a7.84.5422.51040.29
  mVKE (this study)71n/a7.84.5425.62330.64
 Oceans (nearshore)
  j) Lu et al. (2009) (4)1.25.829.4213.36
  k) Capps and Zender (2010) (15)
  l) VKE (this study)3n/a8.95.1426.3110.72
   mVKE (this study)3n/a8.95.1426.4120.73
  m) GCM (this study)10010.67.03.6484.62700.53
  n) Jacobson and Archer (2012) (8)10011.38.14.0513.92240.44
  o) Marvel et al. (2012) (14)1001.7–
  p) GCM (this study)2624.34.62.6443.2490.37
  q) Miller et al. (2011) (6)2615.24.32.5422.3340.26
  r) Jacobson and Archer (2012) (8)2611.37.54.5404.7710.54
  s) Wang and Prinn (2010) (19)112.9190.33
  t) Keith et al. (2004) (11)2.610.4161.19
  u) Fitch (2015) (20)0.410.03.22.3295.510.63
  v) GCM (this study)719.17.83.9505.22130.59
  w) Jacobson and Archer (2012) (8)7411.38.44.1513.31620.38
 Oceans (nearshore)
  x) Wang and Prinn (2010) (19)22.630.30
  y) Wang and Prinn (2011) (21)2.25.370.61
  z) Wang and Prinn (2011) (21)3.65.6120.64
  • Estimates by VKE and mVKE are given by rows a, e, i, and l; estimates in rows b and g use long-term global mean near-surface atmospheric dissipation rates as a bound to electricity generation; estimates in rows c, d, f, g, h, j, and k use observed wind speeds and prescribed turbine characteristics without accounting for the reduction in wind speeds. A detailed description of the studies is provided in SI Appendix, Supplement D. IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Max. gen., maximum electricity generation; n/a, not derived for a specific installed capacity.