Table S11.

Effects of handgun waiting periods on violence, 1970–2014

HomicidesSuicides
AllGunNon-gunAllGunNon-gun
Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Waiting period−0.132**−0.186**−0.035−0.024**−0.074***−0.006
(0.050)(0.071)(0.037)(0.011)(0.017)(0.033)
Background check0.0250.0220.0360.0230.0290.084**
(0.081)(0.107)(0.057)(0.020)(0.028)(0.031)
Alcohol consumption0.155**0.142*0.198***0.144***0.147***0.128***
(0.065)(0.075)(0.071)(0.039)(0.045)(0.045)
Poverty−0.004−0.006−0.0030.0010.002−0.005
(0.006)(0.007)(0.005)(0.002)(0.002)(0.004)
Income−0.0020.003−0.003−0.009***−0.011**−0.021***
(0.011)(0.013)(0.011)(0.003)(0.004)(0.005)
Urban0.0020.0010.0030.0030.0020.009**
(0.006)(0.007)(0.006)(0.003)(0.003)(0.004)
Black0.035*0.040*0.0220.0040.024*−0.011
(0.020)(0.023)(0.016)(0.009)(0.012)(0.010)
Age under 14 y0.0330.0570.005−0.0030.0020.013
(0.038)(0.055)(0.027)(0.015)(0.017)(0.021)
Age 15–17 y−0.136**−0.106−0.145*−0.084**−0.171***−0.068
(0.062)(0.077)(0.073)(0.035)(0.040)(0.052)
Age 18–24 y0.0150.0170.0140.0020.037*0.010
(0.046)(0.061)(0.047)(0.020)(0.021)(0.025)
Age 25–34 y−0.035−0.038−0.0150.0160.0130.041
(0.034)(0.045)(0.029)(0.019)(0.022)(0.026)
Age 35–44 y−0.008−0.0380.044−0.0090.0050.024
(0.051)(0.063)(0.047)(0.017)(0.023)(0.023)
Age 45–54 y0.0560.107**0.0090.037**0.0270.016
(0.034)(0.046)(0.029)(0.016)(0.020)(0.028)
Age 55–64 y0.029−0.0250.126***0.0200.0220.090**
(0.061)(0.085)(0.044)(0.022)(0.033)(0.036)
Observations1,9381,9361,9371,9381,9381,938
Adjusted R20.910.900.850.920.970.84
  • This table reports coefficients for all variables included in model 3 of Table 1. The dependent variable is the natural logarithm of adult deaths (21+) per 100,000 adult residents. The observation count for gun homicides is two less than the full sample count because North Dakota had no adult gun homicides in 2008 and Vermont had no adult gun homicides in 2009. The observation count for non-gun homicides is one less than the full sample count because North Dakota had no adult non-gun homicides in 2003. All models include state and year fixed effects. SEs, shown in parentheses, are clustered by state. *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.