Table S7.

Alternative specifications for the effect of handgun waiting periods and background checks on violence from 1970 to 2014: Linear rate

1970–20141977–2014
Type of violence(1)(2)(3)
All homicide
 Waiting period−1.372 (0.772)*−1.332 (0.790)*−1.138 (0.477)**
 Background check−0.190 (1.046)−0.412 (0.960)
Gun homicide
 Waiting period−1.185 (0.627)*−1.054 (0.686)−1.010 (0.412)**
 Background check−0.627 (0.806)−0.398 (0.791)
Non-gun homicide
 Waiting period−0.187 (0.186)−0.278 (0.191)−0.129 (0.131)
 Background check0.436 (0.324)−0.014 (0.219)
All suicide
 Waiting period−0.906 (0.325)***−1.238 (0.391)***−0.459 (0.167)***
 Background check1.600 (1.157)0.070 (0.328)
Gun suicide
 Waiting period−0.882 (0.277)***−0.912 (0.327)***−0.533 (0.203)**
 Background check0.143 (0.669)−0.453 (0.338)
Non-gun suicide
 Waiting period−0.024 (0.222)−0.326 (0.357)0.073 (0.174)
 Background check1.458 (0.615)**0.524 (0.189)***
  • Coefficients estimate the effect of waiting periods and background checks on the number of deaths per 100,000 adult residents. All models include state and year fixed effects and mirror those of Table 1. Model 3 uses fewer years of data due to missing control variables in earlier years. The analysis covering 1970–2014 includes 2,295 state-years; the analysis with control variables covering 1977–2014 includes 1,938 state-years. SEs, shown in parentheses, are clustered by state. *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.