Table S4.

Mean value and range of the areas enclosed by the tympanic sulcus and the oval window, middle ear length, and the angles between the middle ear axis and the planes of the tympanic sulcus and the oval window of AMHs, Neandertals, P. troglodytes, and G. gorilla

SampleTS area (mm2)OW area (mm2)ME length (mm)Angle TS plane to ME axis (°)Angle OW plane to ME axis (°)
AMH (n = 54)69.68 (±6.771)3.43 (±0.445)6.31 (±0.488)78 (±5.2)70 (±6.3)
AMH range51.61–84.372.46–4.685.23–7.6566–8955–80
Neandertals (n = 10)*73.99 (±7.033)3.13 (±0.394)6.54 (±0.278)69 (±3.6)49 (±3.5)
Neandertal range64.71–85.722.36–3.676.19–7.0164–7541–53
P. troglodytes (n = 14)82.17 (± 5.855)2.97 (±0.288)5.33 (±0.259)63 (±4.6)55 (±5.6)
P. troglodytes range72.19–89.302.54–3.574.79–5.7053–6844–62
G. gorilla (n = 10)107.57 (±11.487)3.31 (±0.263)5.66 (±0.276)71 (±6.6)64 (±6.0)
G. gorilla range96.05–133.242.70–3.725.20–6.0263–8156–72
  • SDs are given in parentheses. ME, middle ear; OW, oval window; TS, tympanic sulcus.

  • * ME length and angles measured in nine Neandertal individuals (La Quina H5 not included).