Table S7.

Summary about the state of preservation of the fossil specimens

SpecimenPreservation*, surface reconstruction applied and selected anatomical details
Amud 1Incus: inside tympanic cavity; manual segmentation; lenticular process missing going along with minor bone erosion of long process but otherwise complete. Measurement of long process accurate; no notch in short process
Tympanic sulcus: in its anterior aspect, a small part (∼15% of total length) of the tympanic ring is broken and displaced posteriorly. Original position was estimated
Oval window: (parts) of the stapes still attached to oval window; required manual segmentation and direct measurement on CT scan
Amud 7Incus: bone removed from tympanic cavity; Avizo Isosurface applied; detailed description in ref. 25; Notch in short process
Ehringsdorf H1026Malleus: inside tympanic cavity; fully embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed
Incus: inside tympanic cavity; fully embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed; no notch in short process
Tympanic sulcus: filled with matrix; manual segmentation was needed
Oval window: manual segmentation was needed
Krapina 38.1Stapes: in vestibule; manual segmentation was needed
Oval window: Avizo Isosurface applied
Krapina 38.12Incus: inside tympanic cavity; mostly embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed; bone complete; notch in short process
Krapina 38.21Incus: inside tympanic cavity; body of incus embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed; lenticular process not visible but long process appears to be complete; notch in short process
Krapina 39.1Incus: inside tympanic cavity; mostly embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed; bone complete; no notch in short process
Stapes: trapped in anterior semicircular canal; manual segmentation was needed
Oval window: Avizo Isosurface applied, part of its ventral edge broken-off but this does not affect reliable measurement
Krapina 39.3Tympanic sulcus: Avizo Isosurface applied; ∼20% of tympanic sulcus are broken off (in anterior part) and had to be estimated
Oval window: Avizo Isosurface applied
Krapina 39.4Incus: inside tympanic cavity; partially embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed; except for medial part of the lenticular process (joint surface), bone complete; measurement of long process accurate
Stapes: trapped in vestibule; manual segmentation was needed
Tympanic sulcus: Avizo Isosurface applied
Oval window: Avizo Isosurface applied; small amount of sediment attached to anterior edge; here, CT data used to find exact edge
Krapina 39.13Stapes: trapped in vestibule; manual segmentation needed
Oval window: Avizo Isosurface applied; since exact edge was hard to visualize using Isosurface module alone CT data used to identify exact edge
Krapina 39.14 (part of Krapina 10)Malleus: inside tympanic cavity; partially embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed
Incus: inside tympanic cavity; partially embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed; visualization of articular facet outline not possible and therefore, not used for geometric morphometric analysis
Tympanic sulcus: partially filled with matrix; manual segmentation was needed
Oval window: partially filled with matrix; manual segmentation was needed
La Chaise de Vouthon-Abri Suard S17Tympanic sulcus: Avizo Isosurface applied; ∼20% of tympanic sulcus are broken off (in anterior part) and had to be estimated
Oval window: Avizo Isosurface applied
La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1Malleus: inside tympanic cavity; fully embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed
Incus: inside tympanic cavity; fully embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed. Except for medial lenticular process (joint surface), bone complete
Tympanic sulcus: Avizo Isosurface applied
Oval window: Avizo Isosurface applied
La Quina H5Malleus: right side used; inside tympanic cavity; fully embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed. Possibility that small piece of tip of the manubrium is absent. Adding 0.3 mm to the tip using manubrium shape information from the other Neandertal mallei has only a minimal and insignificant effect on the position of this specimen in shape space
Incus: right side used; inside tympanic cavity; fully embedded in matrix; manual segmentation was needed; except for the articular joint surface of the lenticular process, bone appears complete; small notch on short process
Tympanic sulcus: Avizo Isosurface applied; left side was used; tympanic sulcus partially incomplete, also showing substantial erosion caused by either otitis media or taphonomic events; it was possible to measure the 3D length of the superior–inferior (S–I) extension; since the anterior aspect of tympanic sulcus is completely missing, the anterior–posterior (A–P) extension was estimated by using its average proportional length measured in the complete Neandertal specimens (S–I length on average 97.6% of A–P length)
Oval window: Avizo Isosurface applied; left side was used
Le Moustier 1Incus: inside tympanic cavity; bone partially embedded in sediment/matrix; manual segmentation was needed; a small crack (∼0.2 mm wide) separates the tip of the short process from the remaining bone, both parts virtually merged; bone otherwise complete; likely a notch in short process
Tympanic sulcus: sediment filled; manual segmentation was needed
Oval window: partially sediment filled; manual segmentation was needed
Pech de l’Azé 1Malleus: inside tympanic cavity; embedded in sediment; manual segmentation was needed
Incus: inside tympanic cavity; embedded in sediment; manual segmentation was needed; lenticular process present and complete; notch in short process
Stapes: trapped in vestibule and embedded in sediment; manual segmentation needed
Tympanic sulcus: Avizo Isosurface applied
Oval window: filled with sediment; manual segmentation needed
Abri Pataud 1Malleus: inside tympanic cavity; manual segmentation was needed
Incus: inside tympanic cavity; manual segmentation was needed; lenticular process present and complete
Cro-Magnon 1Malleus: inside tympanic cavity; manual segmentation was needed
Incus: inside tympanic cavity; manual segmentation was needed; only remnants of lenticular process present but otherwise complete
Stapes: inside tympanic cavity; manual segmentation was needed
Qafzeh 12Malleus: bone removed from tympanic cavity; detailed description in ref. 25; Avizo Isosurface applied
Incus: bone removed from tympanic cavity; detailed description in ref. 25; Avizo Isosurface applied; final landmark on long process placed 0.2 mm more inferiorly, because tip is broken off
Qafzeh 15Malleus: bone removed from tympanic cavity; detailed description in ref. 25; Avizo Isosurface applied
Incus: bone removed from tympanic cavity; detailed description in ref. 25; Avizo Isosurface applied; final landmark on long process placed 0.2 mm more inferiorly, because tip is broken off
  • * The head of the malleus and the complete incus of nearly all Neandertal specimens show, compared with the other species, a disproportional amount of erosions/pits caused by either otitis media or unknown taphonomic events.