Table 1.

Details of samples used in this study

Site locationPeriodType of burialSkeleton no.Age and sex*Methods used to determine sexReference
Whitwell, Derbyshire, UKNeolithic ca. 5,700 BPFragmentary, disarticulated cranium (SK485) and articulating mandible (SK219)SK219Adult femaleMorphological traits of the mandible of SK219 and the articulating maxilla of SK485 (3, 14); marked sexual dimorphism(15)
Whitwell, Derbyshire, UKNeolithic ca. 5,700 BPFragmentary, disarticulated mandibleSK534Adult maleMorphological traits of the mandible only (3, 14); marked sexual dimorphism(15)
Seaham, County Durham, UK7th–9th century ADInhumation cemeteryFFS SK15Female 26–45 yMorphological traits of the pelvis and skull (3, 14, 16)(17)
Seaham, County Durham, UK7th–9th century ADInhumation cemeteryFFS SK3Male 36+ yMorphological traits of the pelvis and skull (3, 14, 16)(17)
St Guthlac’s Priory, Hereford, UK12th–16th century ADInhumation cemeterySK 9503Female old adultMorphological traits of the pelvis and skull (3, 14, 16)(18)
St Guthlac’s Priory, Hereford, UK12th–16th century ADInhumation cemeterySK 9515Male old adultMorphological traits of the pelvis and skull (3, 14, 16); significant grave goods: chalice(18)
Fewston, North Yorkshire, UK19th century ADInhumation cemeterySK363Female 54 yDocumented age and sex: coffin plate; morphological traits of the pelvis and skull (2, 3, 16)(13)
Fewston, North Yorkshire, UK19th century ADInhumation cemeterySK378Female 34 yDocumented age and sex: coffin plate; morphological traits of the pelvis and skull (2, 3, 16)(13)
Fewston, North Yorkshire, UK19th century ADInhumation cemeterySK366Male 76 yDocumented age and sex: coffin plate; morphological traits of the pelvis and skull (2, 3, 16)(13)
Fewston, North Yorkshire, UK19th century ADInhumation cemeterySK119Male 38 yDocumented age and sex: coffin plate; morphological traits of the pelvis and skull (2, 3, 16)(13)
Fewston, North Yorkshire, UK19th century ADInhumation cemeterySK339Male 41 yDocumented age and sex: coffin plate; morphological traits of the pelvis and skull (2, 3, 16)(13)
Fewston, North Yorkshire, UK19th century ADInhumation cemeterySK130Male 66 yDocumented age and sex: coffin plate; morphological traits of the pelvis and cranium (2, 3, 16)(13)
Fewston, North Yorkshire, UK19th century ADInhumation cemeterySK351Male 63 yDocumented age and sex: grave stone; morphological traits of the pelvis and skull (2, 3, 16)(13)
  • * As previously determined by osteological, epigraphic, and grave goods.