Table 1.

LIWC Dictionaries Associated with Depression

LIWC dictionaryβP value
Pronouns
 First pers singular (I, me)0.19***
Emotions
 Feel (perceptual process)0.15***
 Negative emotions0.14**
 Sadness0.17***
Cognitive processes
 Discrepancy0.12**
Other
 Health0.11**
  • Shown are all pronoun and psychological process LIWC 2015 dictionaries significantly associated with future depression status controlling for demographics, with strengths of associations given as standardized regression coefficients. All coefficients meet the P < 0.05 significance threshold when corrected for multiple comparisons by Benjamini–Hochberg method. Significantly correlated superordinate personal pronoun and pronoun dictionaries are not shown, which include the first-person singular pronoun dictionary shown here.

  • ** P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.