Table 1.

Management funding and estimated minimum need for effective lion conservation in PAs with lions, aggregated by country

RankCountry (ISO code)RegionTotal fundingState fundingDonor fundingMinimum required funding,* $milPAs with lions, nLion PA total area, km2
Median, $/km2Total, $milMedian, $/km2Total, $milMedian, $/km2Total, $milAfrican Parks NetworkOur studyPacker et al. (5)
1South Africa (ZAF)Southern3,01457.593,01457.59No dataNo data28.0936.5158.31928,725
2Rwanda (RWA)East2,2062.252450.251,9602.001.001.302.0711,020
3Kenya (KEN)East1,68859.611,43551.95827.6635.3946.0073.472036,190
4Chad (TCD)West-Central7532.29No dataNo data7532.292.983.876.1813,043
5Malawi (MWI)Southern6902.7960.046812.754.445.779.2244,540
6Benin (BEN)West-Central5576.27540.804985.4612.5416.3026.03612,822
7Uganda (UGA)East4185.503322.96852.549.6612.5620.0599,879
8Burkina Faso (BFA)West-Central3703.372071.621641.7510.4613.6021.721310,700
9Zimbabwe (ZWE)Southern24116.0623510.321 or 2725.7542.9455.8089.122243,903
10Botswana (BWA)Southern20042.4618939.26113.20203.16264.03421.6949207,731
11Tanzania (TAZ)East17685.744162.245423.50173.27225.18359.6437177,164
12Namibia (NAM)Southern16617.07013.29353.7863.3482.31131.471064,763
13Mozambique (MOZ)Southern13524.0941.8712122.22114.56148.88237.7921117,138
14Central African Republic (CAF)West-Central1283.66290.27843.398.8011.4418.2748,999
15Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD)West-Central11611.1900.00§11611.1947.7061.9999.01548,771
16Zambia (ZMB)Southern11623.887010.884613.00151.94197.46315.3835155,361
17Nigeria (NGA)West-Central1030.58580.37450.216.478.4113.4226,613
18Ethiopia (ETH)East636.80452.21354.5947.7862.0999.171748,852
19Senegal (SEN)West-Central470.39310.26160.138.0510.4716.7218,234
20South Sudan (SSD)East452.9490.6042.3473.3595.32152.24974,996
21Niger (NER)West-Central430.11260.06170.042.933.816.0923,000
22Angola (AGO)Southern342.66∼0∼0.00342.6676.7699.75159.32178,484
23Cameroon (CMR)West-Central213.42120.3893.0447.5761.8298.74448,642
All countries200380.72104257.2155123.501173.181524.652435.132821,199,570
  • Countries are ranked from highest to lowest average (median) total available funding among PAs. Minimum required funding was estimated using three different methods of calculating the minimum funding requirement for effective lion conservation. ISO, International Organization for Standardization; $mil, million dollars.

  • * Minimum funding requirement based on each method: African Parks Network, $978/km2; our study, $1,271/km2; and Packer et al. (5), $2,030/km2.

  • Represents an underestimation, as South Africa estimates did not include donor data and Chad did not include state data.

  • Median does not accurately represent the right-skewed distribution of donor funding in Zimbabwe, where 50% of 22 PAs received <$1/km2 and 50% received a median of $272/km2.

  • § State contributions for the Democratic Republic of the Congo totaled ∼$3,000.

  • Data were not available, but experts indicated that state budgets were close to $0/km2.