Table 1.

Characteristics of the sample (n = 218)

CharacteristicN (%) or mean (SD)
Age, y13.9 (0.54)
Sex, female143 (65.6%)
Self-identified race, white (non-Hispanic)75 (34.4%)
Self-identified race, black (non-Hispanic)73 (33.5%)
Self-identified ethnicity, Hispanic (any race)68 (31.2%)
Pre-, early, or mid-puberty72 (33.0%)
Late or post-puberty146 (67.0%)
Annual household income, thousands of dollars90.3 (83.8)
Household savings, thousands of dollars106.4 (361.5)
Income below federal poverty line39 (17.9%)
MetS, no. of signs0.47 (0.78)
MetS, composite score0.03 (2.28)
BMI23.1 (5.0)
Body fat, %28.8 (15.1)
Insulin resistance, HOMA-IR3.0 (2.2)
Circulating leptin, ng/mL16.6 (19.8)