Table 1.

Estimates of longitudinal urban scaling decrease under control for economic development and social change

Aggregate dataMicrodata
Independent variables1234
GDP per capita0.0180.0430.013
Mean education0.210
Private sector job0.165
Migration between LMAs0.037
R2 within0.9000.9630.1680.308
  • Dependent variable: log(wage). Shown are longitudinal regressions on aggregate data with 73 × T = 1, 679 city years (models 1 and 2, based on Eq. 2) and on microdata with 1.12 million × T-i = 16.8 million person years (models 3 and 4, based on Eq. 3). The coefficients for log(N) indicate the mean β within the 73 LMAs. Model 4 yields the closest approximation of the true longitudinal wage-size scaling relation.