Table 1.

Estimates of longitudinal urban scaling decrease under control for economic development and social change

Aggregate dataMicrodata
Independent variables1234
log(N)0.8190.1910.2070.094
GDP per capita0.0180.0430.013
Mean education0.210
Education0.222
Experience0.063
Experience2−0.002
Employed0.754
Private sector job0.165
Migration between LMAs0.037
R2 within0.9000.9630.1680.308
  • Dependent variable: log(wage). Shown are longitudinal regressions on aggregate data with 73 × T = 1, 679 city years (models 1 and 2, based on Eq. 2) and on microdata with 1.12 million × T-i = 16.8 million person years (models 3 and 4, based on Eq. 3). The coefficients for log(N) indicate the mean β within the 73 LMAs. Model 4 yields the closest approximation of the true longitudinal wage-size scaling relation.