Table 3.

Bivariate selection gradient analysis

TermHalle fallNorwich fallNorwich springNorwich summerValencia fall
Est.SEEst.SEEst.SEEst.SEEst.SE
βBPTU−0.13*0.100.330.17−0.010.080.20*0.07−0.020.09
βbranch0.72*0.051.15*0.110.77*0.090.53*0.040.71*0.08
γBPTU−9.101205.84146−30.290.8−60.110082.2114
γbranch0.060.310.901.11−0.000.180.060.160.180.22
γBPTU,branch−0.110.140.280.310.000.090.100.06−0.070.19
  • β, analogous to the directional selection coefficient; BPTU, accumulated photothermal units to bolting; branch, total number of branches; Est., estimate of the coefficient; γ, analogous to the stabilizing or disruptive coefficient; SE, numerically approximated SE.

  • * Bolded estimates with asterisks represent significance from Bonferroni-corrected P values <0.05.