Table 2.

Aerosol direct radiative forcing (W⋅m−2) including incident flux for January 2015 all-sky conditions

Radiation modelIncidentReflectedAtmosphere absorptionSurface absorptionNet absorption
NCAR anthropogenic tropospheric aerosols (OD600nm = 0.088)
 Flat0.00+1.45+4.28−5.73−1.45
 Spherical+0.19+1.56+4.32−5.69−1.37
 Refractive+0.13+1.54+4.31−5.72−1.41
 Geometric+0.21+1.56+4.35−5.70−1.35
GeoMIP stratospheric sulfate aerosols (OD600nm = 0.094)
 Flat0.00+2.54−0.40−2.13−2.53
 Spherical+0.40+2.78−0.42−1.97−2.39
 Refractive+0.31+2.75−0.43−2.00−2.43
 Geometric+0.49+2.85−0.42−1.93−2.36
  • These calculations include clouds; a clear-sky calculation has 3× the reflected energy, ∼4.6 W⋅m−2.