Table 3.

Standardized coefficients for linear regression models predicting students’ overall FOL (model 1) and performance on the TOL (model 2)

Regression parameterModel 1: FOL (standardized z score)Model 2: TOL (standardized z score)
Constant0.34−0.46
Passive (0) versus active (1)−0.56***0.46***
Topic (fluids = 0; statics = 1)0.44**0.44***
Semester (spring = 0; fall = 1)−0.37*−0.29*
Instructor (A = 0; B = 1)−0.03−0.12
CLASS pretest (z score)0.010.00
FCI pretest (z score)−0.070.25***
Average of first 2 midterms (z score)−0.20*0.26***
Gender (female = 0; male = 1)−0.050.33*
R20.170.39
RMSE0.970.77
  • Both models control for class content (fluids versus statics), semester, instructor, and student data (CLASS score, FCI score, midterm performance, and gender). ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05. Results are unaffected by the choice of ordinary least-squares or robust SEs (38). The raw FOL and TOL scores were pooled before standardization, which accounts for the effect of the “topic” covariate (fluids vs. statics).