Table 1.

Demographic, hemodynamic, and LV structure and function (scaled where appropriate) in semiwild sanctuary chimpanzees, Tarahumara, sedentary humans, LDRs, and American football linemen (AFL)

Parameter assessedChimpanzeees (n = 43)All humans (n = 164)Tarahumara (n = 42)Sedentary humans (n = 40)LDRs (n = 42)AFL (n = 40)P value*
Demographics
 Age (years)21 ± 525 ± 833 ± 827 ± 420 ± 219 ± 10.015
 Body Mass (kg)55 ± 876 ± 1862 ± 875 ± 967 ± 5102 ± 14<0.001
 Height (cm)127 ± 9176 ± 10164 ± 5176 ± 7179 ± 6185 ± 9<0.001
Hemodynamics
 SBP (mmHg)138 ± 21116 ± 11113 ± 11115 ± 8110 ± 8127 ± 9<0.001
 DBP (mmHg)92 ± 1767 ± 1169 ± 1067 ± 860 ± 874 ± 13<0.001
 Heart rate/mass−0.25158 ± 28178 ± 31165 ± 26179 ± 24159 ± 24209 ± 240.002
 CO (L/min)/mass0.750.147 ± 0.0470.208 ± 0.0490.181 ± 0.0360.188 ± 0.0350.250 ± 0.0470.210 ± 0.045<0.001
LV structure
 Mid-LV WT (cm)/mass0.250.376 ± 0.0890.307 ± 0.0530.264 ± 0.0330.323 ± 0.0390.274 ± 0.0260.372 ± 0.024<0.001
 Mid-LV RWT0.427 ± 0.1130.366 ± 0.0740.317 ± 0.0580.378 ± 0.0500.322 ± 0.0350.452 ± 0.0580.02
 EDV (ml)/mass1.01.8 ± 0.32.0 ± 0.51.7 ± 0.31.7 ± 0.32.8 ± 0.31.7 ± 0.20.201
 ESV (ml)/mass1.00.91 ± 0.240.79 ± 0.290.63 ± 0.140.63 ± 0.151.20 ± 0.180.68 ± 0.120.095
 LVL (cm)/mass0.252.80 ± 0.203.00 ± 0.293.11 ± 0152.79 ± 0.203.31 ± 0.202.78 ± 0.16<0.001
 LV OT (cm)/mass0.250.720 ± 0.0630.728 ± 0.0550.755 ± 0.0430.698 ± 0.0460.768 ± 0.0390.688 ± 0.0431
 SI1.68 ± 0.151.85 ± 0.171.90 ± 0.161.84 ± 0.111.93 ± 0.151.72 ± 0.17<0.001
LV Systolic function
 SV (ml)/mass1.00.926 ± 0.2191.192 ± 0.3041.109 ± 0.1941.057 ± 0.1941.578 ± 0.2051.006 ± 0.197<0.001
 S′ (cm/s)0.0624 ± 0.01340.1114 ± 0.01570.1015 ± 0.01570.1143 ± 0.00930.1067 ± 0.01460.1235 ± 0.0133<0.001
 Peak LV twist (°)§6.4 ± 3.317.4 ± 6.218.0 ± 6.318.4 ± 5.714.4 ± 5.216.5 ± 7.4<0.001
LV diastolic function
 E (cm/s)0.77 ± 0.170.83 ± 0.140.85 ± 0.200.84 ± 0.110.88 ± 0.130.77 ± 0.090.241
 A (cm/s)0.39 ± 0.150.51 ± 0.150.51 ± 0.150.48 ± 0 0.110.39 ± 0.090.65 ± 0.14<0.001
 E/A2.21 ± 0.731.82 ± 0.691.79 ± 0.651.82 ± 0.442.38 ± 0.731.26 ± 0.380.029
 E′ (cm/s)0.101 ± 0.0240.136 ± 0.0320.152 ± 0.0300.115 ± 0.0140.168 ± 0.0130.107 ± 0.018<0.001
 A′ (cm/s)0.062 ± 0.0180.073 ± 0.0250.102 ± 0.0200.051 ± 0.0120.065 ± 0.0110.074 ± 0.0200.017
 LV UTV (°/s)§−53 ± 23−109 ± 38−109 ± 39−121 ± 44−109 ± 27−96 ± 36<0.001
  • SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; CO, cardiac output; LV, left ventricular; WT, wall thickness; RWT, relative WT; EDV, end diastolic volume; ESV, end systolic volume; OT, outflow tract; SV, stroke volume; S′, systolic ventricular wall velocity; LVL, LV length; E, early diastolic transmitral filling velocity; A, late diastolic transmitral filling velocity; E:A, the ratio of early to late diastolic transmitral filling velocities; E′, early diastolic ventricular wall velocity; A′, late diastolic ventricular wall velocity; UTV, untwisting velocity.

  • * Comparison of chimpanzees to all humans using 2-tailed unpaired Welch’s t tests for unequal variances. P values are adjusted for familywise error (37 tests) using the sequential Bonferroni method.

  • P < 0.05 for comparison of chimpanzees to individual human groups using 2-tailed unpaired Welch’s t tests for unequal variances. P values are adjusted for familywise error (148 tests) using the sequential Bonferroni method.

  • Calculated via the summation of lower limb and crown to rump measurements. n = 207 for all analyses except: EDV/mass1.0 (198); ESV/mass1.0 (198); SV/mass1.0 (198); CO/mass0.75 (198); sphericity index (SI) (204); MVE (206); MVA (206); MV E/A (206); mean E′ (206); mean A′ (206); mean S′ (205); twist peak (97); UTV (97). See SI Appendix for full table including all nonscaled variables.

  • § For 2 angular variables (peak LV twist and LV UTV) a circular-linear model with a von Mises distribution for the response was used to compare means across groups.